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Cities in the Spotlight: Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina

Today we will be taking another trip to Europe. This time we are heading to Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina.

 

Sarajevo City Information

Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits. The Sarajevo metropolitan area including Sarajevo Canton, East Sarajevo and nearby municipalities is home to 555,210 inhabitants. Located within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of the Balkans, a region of Southern Europe. Sarajevo is the political, financial, social and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a prominent center of culture in the Balkans. It exerts region-wide influence in entertainment, media, fashion and the arts. Due to its long history of religious and cultural diversity, Sarajevo is sometimes called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans". It is one of a few major European cities to have a mosque, Catholic church, Eastern Orthodox church, and synagogue within the same neighborhood. In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated as the 2014 European Capital of Culture. It was selected to host the European Youth Olympic Festival. In addition, in October 2019, Sarajevo was designated as a UNESCO Creative City for having placed culture at the center of its development strategies. It is also ranked as one of the world's eighteen Cities of Film.

 

Sarajevo Historical Significance

One of the earliest findings of settlement in the Sarajevo area is that of the Neolithic Butmir culture. The discoveries at Butmir were made on the grounds of the modern-day Sarajevo suburb Ilidža in 1893 by Austro-Hungarian authorities during the construction of an agricultural school. The area's richness in flint was attractive to Neolithic humans, and the settlement flourished. The settlement developed unique ceramics and pottery designs, which characterize the Butmir people as a unique culture, as described at the International Congress of Archaeologists and Anthropologists meeting in Sarajevo in 1894. The next prominent culture in Sarajevo were the Illyrians. The ancient people, who considered most of the Western Balkans as their homeland, had several key settlements in the region, mostly around the river Miljacka and the Sarajevo valley. The Illyrians in the Sarajevo region belonged to the Daesitiates, the last Illyrian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina to resist Roman occupation. Their defeat by the Roman emperor Tiberius in 9 AD marks the start of Roman rule in the region. The Romans never built up the region of modern-day Bosnia, but the Roman colony of Aquae Sulphurae was near the top of present-day Ilidža, and was the most important settlement of the time. After the Romans, the Goths settled the area, followed by the Slavs in the 7th century.


During the Middle Ages, Sarajevo was part of the Bosnian province of Vrhbosna near the traditional center of the Kingdom of Bosnia. Though a city named Vrhbosna existed, the exact settlement in Sarajevo at this time is debated. Various documents note a place called Tornik in the region, most likely in the area of the Marijin Dvor neighborhood. By all indications, Tornik was a very small marketplace surrounded by a proportionally small village, and was not considered very important by Ragusan merchants. Other scholars say that Vrhbosna was a major town in the wider area of modern-day Sarajevo. Papal documents say that in 1238, a cathedral dedicated to Saint Paul was built in the area. Disciples of the notable saints Cyril and Methodius stopped in the region, founding a church near Vrelo Bosne. Whether or not the town was somewhere in the area of modern-day Sarajevo, the documents attest to its and the region's importance. There was also a citadel Hodidjed north-east to the Old City, dating from around 1263 until it was occupied by the Ottoman Empire in 1429.

Sarajevo was founded by the Ottoman Empire in the 1450s upon its conquest of the region, with 1461 used as the city's founding date. The first Ottoman governor of Bosnia, Isa-Beg Ishaković, transformed the cluster of villages into a city and state capital by building a number of key structures, including a mosque, a closed marketplace, a public bath, a hostel, and of course the governor's castle ("Saray") which gave the city its present name. The mosque was named "Careva Džamija" (the Emperor's Mosque) in honor of Sultan Mehmed II. With the improvements, Sarajevo quickly grew into the largest city in the region. By the 15th century the settlement was established as a city, named Bosna-Saraj, around the citadel in 1461. Following the expulsion of Jews from Spain at the end of the 15th century, and the invitation from the Ottoman Empire to resettle their population, Sephardic Jews arrived in Sarajevo, which over time would become a leading center of Sephardic culture and the Ladino language. Though relatively small in size, a Jewish quarter would develop over several blocks in Baščaršija. Many local Christians converted to Islam at this time. To accommodate the new pilgrims on the road to Mecca, in 1541, Gazi Husrev-beg's quartermaster Vekil-Harrach built a Pilgrim's mosque for which it is still known to this day as the Hadžijska Mosque.


Under leaders such as the second governor Gazi Husrev-beg, Sarajevo grew at a rapid rate. Husrev-beg greatly shaped the physical city, as most of what is now the Old Town was built during his reign. Sarajevo became known for its large marketplace and numerous mosques, which by the middle of the 16th century numbered more than 100. At the peak of the empire, Sarajevo was the biggest and most important Ottoman city in the Balkans after Istanbul. By 1660, the population of Sarajevo was estimated to be over 80,000. By contrast, Belgrade in 1683 had 100,000, and Zagreb as late as 1851 had 14,000 people. As political conditions changed, Sarajevo became the site of warfare. In 1697, during the Great Turkish War, a raid was led by Prince Eugene of Savoy of the Habsburg monarchy against the Ottoman Empire, which conquered Sarajevo and left it plague-infected and burned to the ground. After his men had looted thoroughly, they set the city on fire and destroyed nearly all of it in one day. Only a handful of neighborhoods, some mosques, and an Orthodox church, were left standing. Numerous other fires weakened the city, which was later rebuilt but never fully recovered from the destruction. By 1807, it had only some 60,000 residents.

In the 1830s, several battles of the Bosnian uprising had taken place around the city. These had been led by Husein Gradaščević. Today, a major city street is named Zmaj od Bosne (Dragon of Bosnia) in his honor. The rebellion failed and for several more decades, the Ottoman state remained in control of Bosnia. The Ottoman Empire made Sarajevo an important administrative centre by 1850. Baščaršija became the central commercial district and cultural center of the city in the 15th century when Isa-Beg Ishaković founded the town. The toponym Baščaršija derives from the Turkish language. Austria-Hungary's occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina came in 1878 as part of the Treaty of Berlin, and complete annexation followed in 1908, angering the Serbs. Sarajevo was industrialized by Austria-Hungary, who used the city as a testing area for new inventions such as tramways, which were established in 1885 before they were later installed in Vienna. Architects and engineers wanting to help rebuild Sarajevo as a modern European capital rushed to the city. A fire that burned down a large part of the central city area (čaršija) left more room for redevelopment. As a result, the city has a unique blend of the remaining Ottoman city market and contemporary western architecture. Sarajevo also has some examples of Secession- and Pseudo-Moorish styles that date from this period.


The Austro-Hungarian period was one of great development for the city, as the Western power brought its new acquisition up to the standards of the Victorian age. Various factories and other buildings were built at this time, and a large number of institutions were both Westernized and modernized. For the first time in history, Sarajevo's population began writing in Latin script. For the first time in centuries, the city significantly expanded outside its traditional borders. Much of the city's contemporary central municipality (Centar) was constructed during this period. Architecture in Sarajevo quickly developed into a wide range of styles and buildings. The Sacred Heart Cathedral, for example, was constructed using elements of neo-gothic and Romanesque architecture. The National Museum, Sarajevo brewery, and City Hall were also constructed during this period. Additionally, Austrian officials made Sarajevo the first city in this part of Europe to have a tramway. Although the Bosnia Vilayet de jure remained part of the Ottoman Empire, it was de facto governed as an integral part of Austria-Hungary with the Ottomans having no say in its day-to-day governance. This lasted until 1908 when the territory was formally annexed and turned into a condominium, jointly controlled by both Austrian Cisleithania and Hungarian Transleithania.

In the event that triggered World War I, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated, along with his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian and self-declared Yugoslav, and member of Young Bosnia. This was followed by the Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, which resulted in two deaths and the destruction of property. In the ensuing war, however, most of the Balkan offensives occurred near Belgrade, and Sarajevo largely escaped damage and destruction. Following the war, Bosnia was annexed into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and Sarajevo became the capital of the Drina Province. After World War I and pressure from the Royal Serbian Army, alongside rebelling Slavic nations in Austria-Hungary, Sarajevo became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Though it held some political significance as the center of first the Bosnian region and then the Drinska Banovina, the city was no longer a national capital and saw a decline in global influence.


During World War II, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia's army was overrun by German and Italian forces. Following a German bombing campaign, Sarajevo was captured on 15 April 1941 by the 16th Motorized infantry Division. The Axis powers created the Independent State of Croatia and included Sarajevo in its territory. Immediately following the occupation, the main Sephardi Jewish synagogue, Il Kal Grande, was looted, burned, and destroyed by the Nazis. Within a matter of months, the centuries-old Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jewish communities of Sarajevo, comprising the vast majority of Bosnian Jewry, would be rounded up in the Old Synagogue (Stari hram) and deported to their deaths in Croatian concentration camps. Roughly 85% of Bosnia's Jewish population would perish at the hands of the Nazis and the Ustaše during the Holocaust in the region. The Sarajevo Haggadah was the most important artifact which survived this period, smuggled out of Sarajevo and saved from the Nazis and Ustaše by the chief librarian of the National Museum, Derviš Korkut.

On 12 October 1941, a group of 108 notable Bosniak citizens of Sarajevo signed the Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims by which they condemned the Genocide of Serbs organized by the Ustaše, made a distinction between the Bosniaks who participated in such persecutions and the rest of the Bosniak population, presented information about the persecutions of Bosniaks by Serbs, and requested security for all citizens of the country, regardless of their identity.[48] During the summer of 1941, Ustaše militia periodically interned and executed groups of Sarajevo Serbs. In August 1941, they arrested about one hundred Serbs suspected of ties to the resistance armies, mostly church officials and members of the intelligentsia, and executed them or deported them to concentration camps. By mid-summer 1942, around 20,000 Serbs found refuge in Sarajevo from Ustaše terror. The city was bombed by the Allies from 1943 to 1944. The Yugoslav Partisan movement was represented in the city. In the period February–May 1945, Maks Luburić set up an Ustaše headquarters in a building known as Villa Luburić and used it as a torture and execution place whose 323 victims were identified after the war. The resistance was led by Vladimir Perić Valter, who died while leading the liberation of the city on 6 April 1945.


After the war, Sarajevo was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Republic Government invested heavily in Sarajevo, building many new residential blocks in the municipalities of Novi Grad and Novo Sarajevo, while simultaneously developing the city's industry and transforming Sarajevo into a modern city. Sarajevo grew rapidly as it became an important regional industrial center in Yugoslavia. Between the end of the war and the end of Yugoslavia, the city grew from a population of 115,000 to more than 600,000 people. The Vraca Memorial Park, a monument for victims of World War II, was dedicated on 25 November, the "Statehood Day of Bosnia and Herzegovina" when the ZAVNOBIH held their first meeting in 1943. A crowning moment of Sarajevo's time in Socialist Yugoslavia was the 1984 Winter Olympics. Sarajevo beat out Sapporo, Japan, and Falun/Gothenburg, Sweden, to host the Olympic Games. The games were followed by a tourism boom, making the 1980s one of the city's most prosperous decades.

The Bosnian War for independence resulted in large-scale destruction and dramatic population shifts during the Siege of Sarajevo between 1992 and 1996. Thousands of Sarajevans lost their lives under the constant bombardment and sniper shooting at civilians by the Serb forces during the siege, the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. Bosnian Serb forces of the Republika Srpska and the Yugoslav People's Army besieged Sarajevo from 5 April 1992 to 29 February 1996. When Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia and achieved United Nations recognition, Serbian leaders declared a new Serbian national state Republika Srpska (RS) which was carved out from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Army of Republika Srpska encircled Sarajevo with a siege force of 18,000 stationed in the surrounding hills, from which they assaulted the city with artillery, mortars, tanks, anti-aircraft guns, heavy machine-guns, multiple rocket launchers, rocket-launched aircraft bombs, and sniper rifles. From 2 May 1992, the Serbs blockaded the city. The Bosnian government defence forces inside the besieged city were poorly equipped and unable to break the siege. During the siege, 11,541 people lost their lives, including over 1,500 children. An additional 56,000 people were wounded, including nearly 15,000 children. The 1991 census indicates that before the siege the city and its surrounding areas had a population of 525,980. When the siege ended, the concrete scars caused by mortar shell explosions left marks that were filled with red resin. After the red resin was placed, it left floral patterns which led to them being dubbed Sarajevo Roses. Division of the territory according to the Dayton Agreement resulted in a mass exodus in early 1996 of some 62,000 Sarajevo Serbs from the city and its suburbs, creating today's more monoethnic post-war city.


Various modern buildings now occupy Sarajevo's skyline, most significantly the Bosmal City Center, BBI Centar, Sarajevo City Center (all three by architect Sead Gološ) and the Avaz Twist Tower, which at the time of its building was the tallest skyscraper in former Yugoslavia. Recent years have seen population growth as well as increases in tourism. In 2014, the city saw anti-government protests and riots and record rainfall that caused historic flooding.

 

Travel to Sarajevo

*taken from Lonely Planet*


Ringed by mountains, Sarajevo is a singular city with an enticing East-meets-West vibe all of its own. It was once renowned as a religious melting pot, earning it the epithet 'the Jerusalem of Europe'. Within a few blocks you can still find large Catholic and Orthodox cathedrals, Ashkenazi and Sephardic synagogues, and numerous mosques. However, the Jewish population was decimated during WWII and Sarajevo is now a divided city, with most of the Orthodox Christians living in Istočno Sarajevo (East Sarajevo) on the Republika Srpska side.


During the 20th century, two violent events thrust Sarajevo into the world's consciousness: the assassination which sparked WWI, and the brutal almost-four-year siege of the city in the 1990s. The scars of the longest siege in modern European history are still painfully visible, yet Sarajevo is once again a wonderful place to visit – for its intriguing architectural medley, vibrant street life and irrepressible spirit.

 

Must See Sites


War Childhood Museum; This affecting museum had its genesis in a 2013 book edited by Jasminko Halilović, in which he asked a simple question of survivors of the Sarajevo siege: 'What was a war childhood for you?' Of the hundreds of replies received, 50 short written testimonies are presented here, each illustrated by personal effects donated by the writer, such as diaries, drawings, toys and ballet slippers. It's a lighter, less gore-filled approach to the conflict than you'll find elsewhere, but equally devastating.


Galerija 11/07/95; This gallery uses stirring photography, video footage and audio testimonies of survivors and family members to create a powerful memorial to the 8372 victims of the Srebrenica massacre, one of the most infamous events of the Bosnian civil war. You'll need well over an hour to make the most of a visit, and it's worth paying the extra for the audioguide to gain more insight.

Sarajevo City Hall; Astorybook neo-Moorish striped facade makes the triangular Vijećnica (1896) Sarajevo's most beautiful Austro-Hungarian–era building. Seriously damaged during the 1990s siege, it finally reopened in 2014 after laborious reconstruction. Its colourfully restored interior and stained-glass ceiling are superb. Your ticket also allows you to peruse the excellent Sarajevo 1914–2014 exhibition in the octagonal basement. This gives well-explained potted histories of the city's various 20th-century periods, insights into fashion and music subcultures, and revelations about Franz Ferdinand's love life. In 1914 Franz Ferdinand and his much frowned-upon wife Sophie (his mother's former lady-in-waiting) had been on their way back from this very building when they were shot by Gavrilo Princip. From 1949 the building became the National Library but in August 1992 it was deliberately hit by a Serbian incendiary shell. Around two million irreplaceable manuscripts, books and documents were destroyed. Those that survived might one day return, but for now the building is used as the council chamber, for weddings and occasionally for concerts. Various exhibitions are staged in the upper level and, in 2018, an ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia) information centre opened on the ground floor, including the contents of the original courtroom, which was shifted here from the Hague.

Sarajevo Cable Car; Reopened in 2018 after being destroyed during the war, Sarajevo's cable car once again shuttles people on a nine-minute ride, climbing 500m to a viewpoint 1164m up on Mt Trebević. From here it's a short walk to the wreck of the Olympic bobsled track, seemingly held together by layers of graffiti.

Tunnel of Hope; During the 1992–95 siege, when Sarajevo was surrounded by Bosnian Serb forces, the only link to the outside world was an 800m-long, 1m-wide, 1.6m-high tunnel between two houses on opposite sides of the airport runway. Walking through a 25m section is the moving culmination of a visit to the shell-pounded house which hid the western tunnel entrance. The story of the siege and the tunnel's construction is told via video, information boards and an audioguide accessible via free wi-fi. Although the airport was supposedly neutral and under tenuous UN control during the conflict, crossing it would have been suicidal. The solution was to secretly build the tunnel, which was eventually equipped with rails to transport food and arms. That proved just enough to keep Sarajevo supplied during nearly four years of siege.

Yellow Fortress; One of the most appealing yet accessible viewpoints gazing over Sarajevo's red-roofed cityscape is from this bastion, built in the 18th century as part of the walls encircling Vratnik. Now sprouting mature trees and a cafe, it's a popular place for picnickers and canoodling lovers. By tradition, the end of the Ramadan fast is formally announced by a canon shot from here.

Baščaršija; Centred on what foreigners nickname Pigeon Square, with its ornate gazebo-like Sebilj drinking fountain (built in 1891), Baščaršija is the very heart of old Sarajevo. The name is derived from the Turkish for 'main market' and it's still lined with stalls, lively (if tourist-centric) coppersmiths' alleys, grand Ottoman mosques, caravanserai (inn) restaurants and lots of inviting little cafes.

National Museum of BiH; Bosnia's biggest and best-endowed museum of ancient and natural history is housed in an impressive, purpose-built quadrangle of neoclassical 1913 buildings. It's best known for housing the priceless Sarajevo Haggadah illuminated manuscript, but there's much more to see. Along with the Haggadah, the main building houses extraordinary Greek pottery and Roman mosaics. Behind this, the central courtyard has a pretty little botanical garden and an exceptional collection of medieval stećci (grave-carvings). Off to one side of the courtyard is the ethnographic wing, where elaborate carved-wood interiors of old Ottoman houses have been reassembled and peopled with manikins in traditional garb. The pinned insects and howling stuffed wolf of the natural history building at the rear of the courtyard won't appeal to all tastes but it's very well presented. Many more examples of stećci sit outside the museum's roadside frontage, visible for free even when the building is closed.

 

Must Try Food & Drink

Sarajevski ćevapi; This unique variety of ćevapi hails from the city of Sarajevo, hence the name sarajevski ćevapi. There are variable accounts regarding the usage of meat for these tasty meat rolls – purists make them exclusively with ground beef, salt, and pepper, while others use a combination of ground beef and mutton. In recent years, sarajevski ćevapi are typically made only with ground beef and salt in order for the meat flavor to be as clear as possible. Once prepared, ćevapi should be refrigerated for 48 hours. They are then grilled, and traditionally served in a round-shaped, (sometimes) beef stock-dipped bread called somun, accompanied by raw onions on the side.

Jabukovača; Jabukovača is a traditional Bosnian apple pie originating from the city of Sarajevo. It is made just like baklava, with the addition of chopped apples. The thin dough is spread with a combination of chopped apples, sugar, vanilla sugar, walnuts, and lemon juice. It is then rolled and arranged in the baking tray. When served, jabukovača is usually cut into slices and doused in sherbet – a combination of sugar, honey, and lemon juice.

Burek; Burek consists of layers of phyllo dough stuffed with various savory fillings. Despite its Turkish origins, this dish has evolved into a proud gem of Bosnian national cuisine. Although most locals claim that only burek with ground beef can be called burek, the same dish also appears with other fillings, and these other varieties are known by different names: sirnica (cottage cheese), zeljanica (spinach), and krompiruša (potatoes). Burek is baked rolled into a snail-like shape and this type is typically found in bakeries, while traditional restaurants often make it in the form of a pie, which is sliced into quarters before serving. The dish is wildly popular all across the Balkans, though in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the cultural significance of this everyday staple is incomparable and best summed up in a number of local proverbs suggesting that if a woman can make a good burek, she's eligible for marriage.

Zeljanica; This savory Bosnian pie (pita) consists of thinly rolled phyllo dough that is filled with a combination of blanched spinach, fresh cow cheese, cream, and eggs. The dough is rolled into a thin sheet called jufka, which is then sprinkled with the filling and shaped into a coil. When baked, the pie is occasionally doused with warm milk or a combination of oil and water. Zeljanica is best served freshly baked, with sour cream or yogurt on the side.

Rakija; Rakija is a universal term used for various fruit brandies produced in several Balkan countries (Southeast Europe). This strong spirit is distilled from different fruit and is sometimes additionally flavored or used as a liqueur base. The most common versions are made from plums (šljivovica), Williams pear (viljamovka), quinces (dunjevača), apricots (kajsijevača), apples (jabukovača), grapes (lozovača/komovica), and many more. Rakija has present in the region for centuries. It is mainly associated with Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro, and North Macedonia. Although fruit brandies are produced in other European countries and regions, in the Balkans, rakija is a household name and has a large following among all generations. This potent spirit typically falls between 40% to 60% ABV. It is usually served neat, preferably well chilled, in a shot glass. Rakija is primarily a social beverage meant to be consumed with friends or as a welcome drink. Locals also like to believe that rakija is a terrific health remedy, and they use it boosts their immune system or ease any minor medical problems. Rakija can be in the form of a pure distilled spirit, but sometimes it is flavored with herbs and fruits. Many producers often use rakija as a liqueur base, but although these liqueurs are often labeled as rakija—such as orahovac made with walnuts or honey-flavored medica—they are technically liqueurs and not fruit brandies. Although rakija holds a reputation as a crude and harsh drink, many producers try to break away from its traditional image and create exceptional labels, which they promote as savoring and sipping drinks.

Žilavka; Žilavka is the best-known white grape variety from Herzegovina. It is a light-skinned grape that produces wines with high alcohol content and bright acidity. Although it is not exclusive to the region, Žilavka is strongly associated with Herzegovina, and it is believed to be a native Herzegovinian grape. In the past, Žilavka was primarily used in blends, but it is now promoted as an excellent monovarietal wine. The wines are bright, fresh, and mineral, usually accompanied by citrus and herbal notes. They are best enjoyed young, but some producers opt for oak-aging to produce more complex and heavier wines. Žilavka is best paired with lighter dishes, and it goes exceptionally well with lamb, eel, freshwater fish, and vegetable dishes. It can also pair well with seafood, cheese, and cold cuts. This white grape is also used in the production of local brandy.

Tuzlanski ćevapi; This variety of ćevapi comes from Tuzla. The small meat logs are usually made with a combination of ground mutton, beef, and lamb (usually in a ratio of 2:1:1), although some places prepare them only with beef. The meat is mixed by hand and seasoned with salt and pepper, and it is recommended to leave the meat combination in the refrigerator for a few hours or a whole day before the preparation. These ćevapi are cooked on an oiled grill, and once done, they are typically seasoned with pepper once more. Tuzlanski ćevapi are served in a round flatbread called lepina, which has previously been dipped in a broth made from beef bones called poljev or poliv. Spring onions or raw chopped onions are traditional accompaniments to this mouth-watering Bosnian meat dish.

Begova čorba; Begova čorba (lit. bey’s soup) is a Bosnian chicken soup that is traditionally served as a warm appetizer. The main ingredients are chicken and okra, which is said to act as an aphrodisiac, but the soup also includes various root vegetables and is thickened with sour cream and eggs. It is typically prepared for national holidays and festive occasions, but it is also a staple of traditional Bosnian restaurants.

Bosanski lonac; Bosanski lonac or Bosnian pot is a traditional, flavorful stew consisting of layers of large and chunky pieces of meat and vegetables that are covered with water and slowly simmered in a big pot. Due to the size of the meat (usually lamb, veal and beef) and the vegetables (cabbage, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes), it takes about four hours or more to properly cook the dish. Spices and seasonings should be kept to a minimum to let the meat and vegetables flavor the dish with their own juices and aromas. The traditional clay pot (lonac) that the stew is cooked in is such an important part of the dish that the whole dish is named after it. The pot was created in the Middle Ages by coal miners, and since Bosnia has long been a mining country, the miners were forced to prepare their own dishes, so while working, they would leave the stew to simmer until their lunch break. Later on, the dish spread throughout the whole country, with new, regional variations and additions to the pot such as ground meat, carp, eggplants, green peppers, and rice.

Kadaif; This Bosnian dessert couples shredded kadayıf dough and a rich nut filling, which usually consists of chopped walnuts. Though there are rolled varieties, kadaif is typically layered, with the nut filling placed between the two layers of butter-coated kadayıf threads. When baked, the dessert is doused in a thick lemon-flavored syrup that is occasionally enriched with cinnamon or cloves. Kadaif has its origins in Turkish culinary tradition, but it has been recognized as a signature Bosnian dessert. It is enjoyed on various special occasions and is best paired with strong Bosnian coffee.

 

Hope you enjoyed this look at another amazing city. I didn't attach any videos as I didn't really find one that I really liked. I'm going to do a few more of these but not re if I will continue all year. Is Cities in the Spotlight something you want to see more of? Comment below if you want me to continue doing Cities in the Spotlight.

 

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